In ancient China, people used one end of a rope to hold a clay pot, and held the other end of the rope, rotating the pottery jar, and generating centrifugal force to squeeze out the honey in the pot. This is the early application of the centrifugal separation principle.
Industrial centrifuges were born in Europe. For example, in the middle of the 19th century, there were three-legged centrifuges for textile dehydration and top-suspension centrifuges for separating crystal sugar from sugar factories. These earliest centrifuges were batch operated and manually drained.
Due to the improvement of the slag discharge mechanism, a continuously operating centrifuge appeared in the 1930s, and the intermittent operation of the centrifuge was also developed due to the realization of automatic control.
Industrial centrifuges can be divided into three types: filtration centrifuge, sedimentation centrifuge and separator according to structure and separation requirements.
The centrifuge has a cylinder that rotates at a high speed about its own axis, called a drum, which is usually driven by an electric motor. After the suspension (or emulsion) is added to the drum, it is rapidly driven to rotate at the same speed as the drum, and the components are separated under the action of centrifugal force and discharged separately. Generally, the higher the drum speed, the better the separation.
The centrifugal separator has two working principles: centrifugal filtration and centrifugal sedimentation. Centrifugal filtration is the centrifugal pressure generated by the suspension under the centrifugal force field, acting on the filter medium, causing the liquid to pass through the filter medium to become the filtrate, and the solid particles are trapped on the surface of the filter medium to achieve liquid-solid separation; centrifugal sedimentation is utilized The principle of rapid sedimentation and stratification of the components with different densities (or emulsions) in the centrifugal force field enables liquid-solid (or liquid-liquid) separation.